Wednesday, 26 October 2016


OUT there in the cold water, far from land, we waited every night for the coming of the fog, and it came, and we oiled the brass machinery and lit the fog light up in the stone tower. Feeling like two birds in the grey sky, McDunn and I sent the light touching out, red, then white, then red again, to eye the lonely ships. And if they did not see our light, then there was always our Voice, the great deep cry of our Fog Horn shuddering through the rags of mist to startle the gulls away like decks of scattered cards and make the waves turn high and foam. (Ray Bradbury, The Fog Horn)

It was very foggy last night, and I missed that sound, which has now gone for good from Corbiere lightouse, as apparently no longer needed in the days of GPS (but probably as much to do with cost-cutting). Gone is that haunting sound that took the listener back to the days when sailors were out there hoping for safety

The Ghost: Ship out there. Too close, by the sound. It's the loneliest sound... like a child lost and crying in the dark. Mmm, he's lost, all right... with a captain cursing a blue streak and wondering why he ever went to sea instead of opening a grocer's shop like a sensible man. Fog in the channel is treacherous. I'd rather face a northeaster. (from “The Ghost and Mrs Muir”)

There is a sense when one heard the fog horn that there was someone on guard, watching those who were out at sea. It was a pleasing, comforting sound.

Driving in the fog, especially at night, can be tricky. Those wisps and tendrils can suddenly thicken, and the curves and weaving of the road, so easy to navigate by day, become a maze to traverse with care.

I was looking up quotations about the fog for this blog, and I came across this poem by William Henry Davies.

W. H. Davies (3 July 1871 – 26 September 1940) was a Welsh poet and writer. He spent a significant part of his life as a tramp, both in the United Kingdom and United States, but became one of the most popular poets of his time.

The principal themes in his work are observations about life's hardships, the ways in which the human condition is reflected in nature, his own tramping adventures and the various characters he met.

This poem is a wonderful and surprising reflection on the human condition. The poet finds himself in a fog so thick that he is disoriented and cannot find his way home.

The Fog - Poem by William Henry Davies

I saw the fog grow thick,
Which soon made blind my ken;
It made tall men of boys,
And giants of tall men.

It clutched my throat, I coughed;
Nothing was in my head
Except two heavy eyes
Like balls of burning lead.

And when it grew so black
That I could know no place,
I lost all judgment then,
Of distance and of space.

The street lamps, and the lights
Upon the halted cars,
Could either be on earth
Or be the heavenly stars.

A man passed by me close,
I asked my way, he said,
'Come, follow me, my friend'—
I followed where he led.

He rapped the stones in front,
'Trust me,' he said, 'and come';
I followed like a child—
A blind man led me home.

Tuesday, 25 October 2016

Fiscal Fantasyland

Reports from the Jersey Innovation Fund show that a loan was given to “Logfiller Limited” 18 months ago to support the development of “a sophisticated computer software solution that measures user experience of application and system use”.

The States Innovation Fund Board granted a £400,000 States loan to the company. Online records showed:

Logfiller is a private company founded in 2013. It is the brainchild of Jeremy Barker, Co-founder and CTO and is now the No.1 REAL User Experience company. Registered Office: Beachside Business Centre, Rue Du Hocq, St Clement, Jersey, JE2 6LF “

Digital Jersey posted this Posted Friday 26th June 2015

“Logfiller Ltd. announces Rollout Of Its New “User Experience” Technology, Layer8. Logfiller Ltd., a young technology company, is rolling out its new software, Layer8, a user experience measurement tool that reveals actionable new data. This innovation has “immediate and significant implications for efficiency, cyber security and compliance across the Windows environment” explained co-founder, Michael Colopy, “providing far more insight than standard technology.”

So what is Layer8?

Machine data, wire data, transaction times ... all useful bits obtained from monitoring your infrastructure and applications. None of these, however, accurately reflects internal end-users’ experience. Obtaining insights from end-users must be derived from their perspective ... at Layer8.

Layer8's metrics are driven by the interaction of the end-user and the system, not by underlying machinery or software. The output is high-quality, dense data that provides insight into what the end-user is actually experiencing, not what logs or counters record. Stated simply, Layer8 provides actual end-user experience data for desktops and VDI ... at scale.

Viewing your organization from the outside in with Layer8 transforms management and processes, empowering better decision making. Imagine what could be done if your team could leverage ...

But that comes from OctoInsight’s website, not Logfiller!

PR Newswire says this:

MCLEAN, Va., June 9, 2016 /PRNewswire/ -- A happier day is dawning for PC users and IT managers as the universal divide between the two is being spanned by a versatile new technology, Layer8, from OctoInsight Inc. (formerly Logfiller).

And that press report tells us:

This innovation is the latest brainchild of user experience obsessive, Jeremy Barker, who has built some of IT's most effective and successful endpoint technologies.

Logfiller and Jersey

Bailiwick Express reports in June that:

“Senator Philip Ozouf has accepted “full responsibility” for the £400,000 States Innovation Fund loan given to a company that appears to have left the Island – but says that the reality is that some businesses backed will succeed, and some will fail.”

“In a statement to the House yesterday on the story about the fund, Senator Ozouf refused to answer specific questions about Logfiller, but did say that ministers expected up to 50% of the companies backed by the fund to fail, and for the money to be written off.”

“Press releases name Michael Colopy as co-founder and Jeremy Barker as CTO, but the company’s website redirects to a firm called Octoinsight, based in Virginia in the US, which names the same two people in the same roles.”

On Friday last it was reported that Logfiller was liquidated:

Digital Quadrant Magazine has this to comment, which really sums up the whole sorry mess far better than I could.

They provide an excellent overview of news stories on Digital Technology, and can be found at:

Here is what they said (my italics):

“Having lent £400,000 from the Island's innovation fund to a company called Logfiller Ltd, those in charge of administering the loan and making sure it was being used appropriately, not only failed to ensure how the company was doing but failed to spot that the firm and all of its representatives had left the island. Thoughtlessly, they hadn't provided a forwarding address.”

“Indeed, it is quite possible that none of the businesses that have received a loan from the fund will succeed. However, the cause for concern lies in Senator Ozouf's assertion that 'the ongoing review process of what’s happening with the company has continued and that continues to this day' Really?! How do you review a company that has disappeared?”

This wasn't a company that failed, this was a company that went AWOL. It's management ran away without leaving a forwarding address. To the best of our knowledge it has defaulted on its loan but this is OK, says Senator Ozouf, because the right processes have been followed. “

“Gallingly, the Senator also claims to take responsibility for the mess, that is whilst noticeably failing to resign and whilst failing to accept that mistakes were made. ‘I would have made the same decision, but some businesses will fail and others won’t,’ he told the States of Jersey.”

Senator Ozouf clearly doesn't have a grasp of the situation. He seems to be confusing a failed business with a business that has disappeared, has run away and appears to be fleeing from its responsibilities to the island with the money that was entrusted to it.”

“As with so many companies attracted to the island, there was no shortage of press releases and fanfare announcing Logfiller's arrival and its being awarded a loan. None of this will have played well with the many local business owners who had to swallow all this after their own applications to the Fund had failed. That the largest single loan provided by the Fund should be made to a company that had no track record of any interest in Jersey, was salt being rubbed into their wounds.”

“Perfectly good Jersey-based businesses were overlooked in the Fund's, Digital Jersey's and Senator Ozouf's desperate desire to be seen to be bringing new investment to the island. Sadly, the result appears incredibly similar to the £200,000 that Jersey's current Treasury Minister, and then Economic Development Minister gave to the also disappeared, Canbedone Productions, and its fantasy fantasy film that never got made in Jersey.”

The Fund may well have undertaken due diligence and assessed Logfiller Ltd before awarding the money nut all this tells us is that its processes and procedures are shoddy, ineffective and need to be overhauled.

“The reality is that Jersey has become a soft target for cavalier 'businessmen' who may have decent intentions but clearly don't have the ability to deliver. With no resignation from Senator Ozouf or any member of the Innovation Fund board, it is clear that nobody is taking any responsibility, just as happened with Canbedone.”

“Islanders are left to foot the bill. Islanders are asked to pay more taxes and islanders are left to pick up the pieces of public-sector incompetence that constantly fails to learn from past mistakes.”

One of Harry Enfield's regular sketches was entitled "I Saw You Coming". Maybe it should be required viewing for the members of the States Innovation Fund?

Monday, 24 October 2016

RIP: Jimmy Perry

RIP: Jimmy Perry

Who do you think you are kidding, Mr. Hitler
If you think we’re on the run?

One of my abiding childhood memories is Dad’s Army which ran from 1968 to 1977. This was an amazing run of 9 years, not because of its length on air, but because of the consistently good quality of the scripts and performances.

“Allo Allo” ran from 1982 to 1992 and “Are you being served?” ran between 1972 and 1985, both longer periods, but they became tired shadows of their greatest days, and their ending was long overdue. “Allo Allo”, once Francesca Gonshaw and Sam Kelly after the fourth season, it began a long decline into a rag bag of catchphrases and farce. And “Are You Being Served?” did capture the reality of a particular kind of department store while Trevor Bannister (1972-79) and Arthur Brough (1972-77) were in it; after that, it went the same way as “Allo Allo”.

The commonality to “Allo Allo” and “Are You Being Served?” was David Croft, but Jimmy Perry was not involved in those. It is very much clear that while David Croft knew what made television comedy, it was Perry who kept its feet firmly on the ground.

One of the major differences between “Dad’s Army” and these is that they capitalised on their success by serving up more of the same, whereas “Dad’s Army” always went back to source, and found new and fresh situations; it always had at least a foot in realism.

Look at the following. Series 6 – by which time most other series had run out of steam:

The platoon is ordered to guard the crew of a sunken U-boat until the escort arrives. However, the escort is delayed, and they must guard the crew all night.

A group of American soldiers arrives at Walmington-on-Sea, but their presence is unappreciated when the soldiers begin flirting with the platoon's girlfriends.

And Series 7, who can forget these:

The platoon dresses up as Morris dancers as part of a carnival to raise money for the town's Spitfire fund, which is still £2,000 short. A Lady Godiva figure will lead the parade, but there is confusion over who this will be.

Lady Maltby donates her Rolls-Royce, and Wilson and Pike are assigned to paint it for camouflage. However, they mistakenly paint the Mayor's Rolls-Royce instead, just before a French general is due to visit the town.

Series 8:

The platoon is chosen to play Nazis in a training film. After they arrive at the set a week early, they are mistaken for real Nazis on the way home.

Despite his bad chest, blocked sinuses, weak ankles, and a recently acquired facial tic, Pike is passed the medical exam and is set to join the army.

Godfrey's cottage is under threat from the building of a new aerodrome, and Frazer blackmails the minister in charge to save it.

And the final series 9:

Pike borrows Mainwaring's recently acquired staff car to drive his new girlfriend to Eastgate, but it runs out of petrol on the way home, forcing Pike to spend all night pushing it back.

Perhaps the only false note was the introduction of Mr Cheeseman as a Platoon regular, after the early death of James Beck as Private Walker, a move that did not work well, and wisely dropped after one season.

Petty went on to collaborate with Croft on “It Ain't Half Hot Mum” (8 series) and “Hi-De-Hi”, both based upon personal experiences.

Unfortunately, “In Ain’t Half Hot Mum”, while it captured the concert parties of the army in the Second World War, suffered from being removed from the domesticity that served “Dad’s Army” so well.

It is watchable, but has its roots in a world that is much more distant from us today, and one that was probably better served by the movie of Leslie Thomas book “The Virgin Soldiers”. And in these politically correct times, army prejudices from a long ago epoch do not fit well into our modern world.

“Hi De High” was however set in a realistic and home-grown environment, that of the holiday camp of the 1950s, with its “Yellow coats” and “Jo Maplin” (a thinly disguised amalgam of Billy Butlin and Fred Pontin”). While not reaching the high points of “Dad’s Army”, the first five series with Simon Cadell were very watchable, but unfortunately it overstayed its welcome.

About “You Rang M’Lord”, the less said the better. An attempt to spoof “Upstairs Downstairs”, it really was desperately unfunny, and was the last collaboration between Croft and Perry. Sadly, Croft by this point was hitting the bottom of his career, and “Oh, Doctor Beeching!” written by David Croft and Richard Spendlove was another, as well as “Grace & Favour” with David Croft and Jeremy Lloyd, an ill-conceived attempt to recapture past glories.

But Jimmy Perry will forever be remembered for “Dad’s Army”, a combination of superb scripting, played by an ensemble of some of the very best character actors in the business. A few quotes to finish with, and not a catchphrase among them...

German U-boat Captain: I am making notes, Captain, and your name will go on the list; and when we win the war you will be brought to account.
Captain Mainwaring: You can write what you like; You're not going to win the war!
U-boat Captain: Oh yes we are.
Mainwaring: Oh no you're not.
U-boat Captain: Oh yes we are!
Pvt. Pike: [Singing] Whistle while you work, Hitler is a twerp, he's half-barmy, so's his army, whistle while you work!
U-boat Captain: Your name will also go on the list! What is it?
Mainwaring: Don't tell him Pike!
U-boat Captain: Pike!

Pike: Did the curse come true?
Frazer: Aye son it did, he died....last year, he was 86

Mainwaring: You both went to public schools, didn't you?
Wilson: You know, I can't help feeling, Sir, you've got a little bit of a chip on your shoulder about that.
Mainwaring: There's no chip on my shoulder, Wilson. I'll tell you what there is on my shoulder, though: three pips, and don't you forget it.

The Vicar has just joined the platoon, and Mainwaring is not happy about it.
Vicar: Could I stand by and watch my wife being raped by a Nazi? Finally I said to myself, no I couldn't.
Mainwaring: But you're not married.
Vicar: I have a very vivid imagination

Mainwaring: No liquor is to be taken without my permission.
Frazer: Hold on! That is undemocratic!
Mainwaring: You, Frazer, will be in charge of all liquor permits.
Frazer: I'm right behind you, Cap'n!

But I could not finish without some catch-phrases:

"You stupid boy."
"Don't panic!"
"They don't like it up 'em!"
Listen Here Napoleon'
"We're doomed. Doomed."
"Put that light out!"
"The Vicars not going to like this."
"Do you think that's wise sir?"
"May I be excused?"

Sunday, 23 October 2016


As Steven Erlanger wrote:

At the school assembly that day, they sang “All Things Bright and Beautiful” and were about to start classes when they heard a roar in the distance.

Fifty years ago, after days of hard rain, a mountain of coal waste and slurry slid through Aberfan in a black avalanche, crushing the town’s school in its path and killing 28 adults and 116 children.

At the inquest, when a child’s cause of death was listed as asphyxia and multiple injuries, one father famously said: “No, sir. Buried alive by the National Coal Board. That is what I want to see on the record.”

This poem is my commemoration of that disaster.

I've chosen a rondel as the form of the poem, with an open meter.


Fifty years past, the village died
Her heart cut out, her soul so lost
The slag heap fell, at such a cost
Rain came down, the people cried

With bare hands, oh how they tried
To dig for children, men exhaust
Fifty years past, the village died
Her heart cut out, her soul so lost

Slag came down in deathly slide
The school buried, oh such a cost
Weep for children that were lost
On that hillside, how they cried
Fifty years past, the village died

Saturday, 22 October 2016

Surfing the Cosmos: Talk by Martin Hendry tonight

In having Martin Hendry coming to speak on Saturday, Jersey has probably one of the highest ranking professors that has ever visited, and one dedicated and passionate about public engagement in science. Expect a talk that will expand your mind but in terms that you can understand. 
Martin is Professor of Gravitational Astrophysics and Cosmology in the School of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Glasgow, where he was first appointed a faculty member in 1998, and where he is currently Head of School.
In 2011 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, in recognition of his contributions to research, teaching and the public understanding of science. In January 2015 he was awarded an MBE for services to public engagement in science in the Queen's New Year Honours list.
Please come along in a once in a lifetime opportunity to hear a Professor who can engage with children, adults, and has even been invited to a conference at the White House (and I don't mean the one in St Ouen!)
Saturday night - 7.30 pm, St Brelade's Church Hall - Parking in next door Rectory field.

Friday, 21 October 2016

The Church of Scotland in Jersey

From “The Pilot”, 1983, comes this interesting article from The Reverend P Kirby

The Church of Scotland in Jersey
By the Rev P Kirby

There has been a Church of Scotland presence in Jersey since 1972.

At that time the Presbyterian Church of England opted to go back into the Church of Scotland, rather than unite with the Congregational Church to form the United Reformed Church.

I say go back into the Church of Scotland, because St Columba's Midvale Road, St Helier, was originally founded and built in the 1850's by the Free Church of Scotland to care for Scottish troops and the Scottish community living in Jersey. Although the congregation has not changed in character to any great extent, and although the pattern of worship is not very much different from the worship of the English Presbyterian Church, its affiliation and loyalty, along with its sister church in Guernsey, now lies with the National Church of Scotland, and its main function is to serve the Scottish Community, which is quite large in Jersey, and to minister to Scottish tourists during the holiday season.

The Other `Established' Church

As I understand it, the aim of this series of articles is to provide information on the background, history and current thinking of various churches, all of which will be regarded as "Free" or "Dissenting" churches by the Church of England.

Thus it will appear strange to some of your readers to have an article written about the other Established Church in Great Britain, which is neither part of the Anglican Communion, or even episcopally governed.

The Church of Scotland is the National Established Church in Scotland, protected by law and acts of Parliament. It has territorial responsibility for serving the country, which it does by a parish system. Although recognising the State, it is totally self-governing, no members of the Royal Family, Ministers of State, or Parliament, having any power to interfere in the running of the Church, no power of appointment to any parish or elevated office, no authority to pronounce on any issue of administration, jurisdiction or theology.

Because it is the Established Church in Scotland, the Queen, and Royal Household become ordinary members of the Church of Scotland once they cross the Border into Scotland, and although they are held in great love and affection by all they hold no office in the Courts of the Church.

Ecclesia Scoticana

Although the Church of Scotland has been Presbyterian by government, and Reformed in theology since the Reformation, the history of the church can be traced back almost to the origins of the Christian Church. It certainly dates from the occupation of Britain by Imperial Rome.

The Christianity thus imported by soldiers and colonists extended on the West Coast of Scotland as far as the Firth of Clyde. St Ninian 362 - 432 carried the gospel to Galloway and later to Central and Eastern Scotland, as far north as Caithness. In the 6th century a Christian kingdom - the original "Scotland" - was formed in Argyllshire by conquest and colonisation from Ulster. This led indirectly to the conversion of the mountainous region of North Pictland, again by missions from Ireland, amongst whose missionaries was St Columba who was the founder of the Abbey of Iona.

The actual name "Ecclesia Scoticana" was first recorded in 880 after the union of the crowns of North and South Pictland. Up to the 12th century the Scottish Church was Celtic in Government - that is, it was monastic, not episcopal. It also failed to acknowledge the authority of Rome. In 1188 the sees of York and Canterbury tried to gain jurisdiction over the Scottish Church, but failed. In order to keep ecclesiastical autonomy however the Church of Scotland had to accept Papal authority, which lasted until the Reformation.

In the mid-16th century the controversy with Rome was reopened and the Church of Scotland definitely rejected Papal authority; it reasserted its responsibility as a national church and its subsequent right and duty to correct error and reform abuse in its own practice. The reformation which resulted has in no way affected identity, but on the contrary reaffirmed and strengthened the unity and continuity of the Church of Scotland with the one church catholic.

Despite what people outside Scotland may think, the church and the state in Scotland see the Reformation not as creating a new church which brutally thrust out the old, but a reforming of the old in which there was maintained a oneness and a continuing identity with itself, and what had existed from the beginning.

One of the earliest acts of the General Assemblies after the Reformation was to adhere, along with the Reformed Churches of Hungary, Poland, France, Switzerland and the Palatinate to a confession known as the Second Helvetic. It held, amongst other things, to the major ecumenical creeds.

The main subordinate Standard of Faith of the Church of Scotland is the Westminster Confession of Faith. From 1693 Parliament, at the Church's request, made it a legal requirement that all clergy adhere to the Confession. It has remained thus until the present day, being confirmed by succeeding Assemblies and also by Acts of Parliament of 1905 and 1922.

Clergy And Ordained Laity

In administration the Church is Presbyterian, that is, it is governed by a series of courts in ascending authority, made up of both clergy and laity in equal numbers. With the exception of the sessions, which are made up entirely of ordained elders, who are laity ordained for life to local church government and pastoral oversight, each court is a 50/50 mix of clergy and elders. Presbytery, the next highest court has a geographical responsibility for churches within its bounds. It has oversight of all matters of administration, law, and theology, and also the power to ordain ministers and induct them to charges.

The Synod again has the same proportion of clergy to laity, and has authority over several Presbyteries, acting as a Court of Appeal. Finally there is the General Assembly, which is convened once a year in Edinburgh in May. It meets for a week and is the ultimate authority of the Church in all matters. Again there is an equal number of elders to clergy. Approximately one third of all clergy attend on a rotating basis.

Each Assembly appoints its own moderator from the attending clergy, and officially his moderatorship lasts only for the duration of the Assembly. During the rest of the year he represents the church as a roving ambassador. There is no hierarchy amongst the clergy. All are equal, and there are no "promoted" posts at all.

Since the 1970's the Church of Scotland has licensed and ordained women both to the Holy Ministry and the Eldership. Elders, who are ordained laity, assist the minister in his pastoral responsibilities, and in the administration of Holy Communion, which is usually celebrated four times a year. It is the Kirk Session who have the authority to decide on the number of times Holy Communion will be celebrated.

Finally you may ask, Why a Church of Scotland in Jersey? Whilst we enjoy very warm relationships with all denominations in the Island, we are not associated in any way with the so-called "English Free Churches". Our prime function is to represent the National Church of Scotland and to care for ex-patriate Scots. Although our church here holds the status of a full parish of the Church of Scotland it serves the same function as other national churches abroad, that of an overseas chaplaincy.

In other words we are a National Church in a foreign land. Having said that however, I must point out with pleasure that we are a congregation of many different nationalities and backgrounds, sharing common Presbyterian allegiance, and this makes our church rich in a real and living way, and open to all. Perhaps that is why when we put up our Church of Scotland board we retained our sign "Presbyterian Church".

Thursday, 20 October 2016

The Island and Coast of Guernsey – Part 2

My post today is a selection from "The Channel Islands" by David Thomas Ansted and Robert Gordon Latham, published in 1865. Most travel guides look at the population, the sights to visit, something of the history, but this is an exception. It begins by looking at the geography of the Islands, and then considers how it his has shaped their subsequent history, so it is a bit different from the general guidebook.

The Island and Coast of Guernsey – Part 2
The most prominent near objects, on approaching St. Peter's Port from the sea, are Castle Cornet and the new harbour works. The former will be referred to presently. A portion of the latter, consisting of a magnificent sea wall, now connects and passes beyond the rock on which the castle stands, commencing at the southern extremity of the town; so that the castle and the works appear to form part of one great plan. This sea wall forms the south arm of the new harbour.

The old harbour of Guernsey, ordered to be built  AD 1275, by King Edward the First, and in course of construction for two centuries, from 1580 to 1780, was only four and a-half acres in extent, and the quay-room was extremely narrow and restricted. Plans for its enlargement, still retaining the character of a tidal harbour, were submitted to the states in 1836, by Mr. James Walker, and subsequently, others by Mr. Rendell.

The latter, though not very different from the former, were accepted; and their execution entrusted to Mr. G. Fosberry Lyster, on the recommendation of Mr. Rendell. Soon after the commencement of the works, important alterations were proposed; and it was decided that, instead of a mere tidal harbour, the natural features of the locality should be taken advantage of, the old harbour being entirely closed. It has also since been greatly improved. The whole of the alterations have been planned and carried out by Mr. Lyster.

An idea of the present harbour will be at once obtained by looking at the annexed plan. Two noble esplanades have been constructed, one on each side of the old harbour, running parallel with the sea front of the town, their total length being 2500 feet, with a breadth of 150 feet. From the two extremities of this, spring breakwaters: one at the south extremity, reaching beyond Castle Cornet, and now nearly 2000 feet in length, connects the -castle with the main land; the other, at the northern end, is incomplete. It is intended to run this out 1300 feet in an easterly direction, and then bend round 750 feet towards the north-east angle of Castle Cornet. 

Within this space will be enclosed, not only a large and excellent anchorage-ground of fiftyseven acres, the whole covered at low water neaps, but the small old harbour, now an inner harbour, a space intended to form a floating dock of ten acres extent, building yards, a careening hard, and other conveniences for shipping. The space enclosed will amount to as much as seventy-three acres at low water, and is being dredged to nine feet, low water spring tides.

Landing-places for steamers, accessible at all times of tide,— slip-ways and berthing for vessels, offering every convenience for trade,—form part of the plan in prosecution; and a great length of quays, eighty-four feet wide, has been already constructed, in addition to the level roadway and footpath on the breakwaters. All these latter are carried to a height of from ten to fifteen feet above the highest tides; arid two enormous massifs, or square emplacements, covering rocks, have been constructed,—one intended as a ladies' bathing-place, with bathing houses and hot water baths—and the other, at present left unemployed. On this it has been suggested that a first class hotel might with advantage be built.

The masonry of the work executed for the harbour is of granite, and does the greatest credit to all concerned. Much of it is Cyclopean, doing away with the formality of level courses, and this without any sacrifice of strength, although with a great economy in labour.

Castle Cornet was a far more picturesque object when a detached island fort, in the time of Charles the Second, than it has since been. It could then well compare, in this respect, with Elizabeth Castle, in Jersey. Although much dismantled, it still contains many architectural gems.  For a long time, and till the year 1811, it was the island prison; but this use is now superseded by a building near St. James' church, immediately behind the Court House, in the centre of the town.

The new gaol is, however, too small, and is ill adapted for its purpose. It is a singular fact, that all the modern buildings in the island are, without exception, singularly wanting in good taste; but whether this arises from want of cultivation, from the remains of Puritanical feeling, still very marked, or from absence of natural power of appreciating what is beautiful, is not easy to say.

St. Sampson's, the only other town, is much smaller than St. Peter's Port, and is now almost connected with it by houses and rows of buildings along the shore. It is a place of some business in connection with the stone trade, which is centred there, to take advantage both of the adjacent quarries and of the little harbour. Many improvements have been made in the harbour, and it is continually increasing in importance. There is little to attract or interest a stranger in the town; all the buildings, except the church, being small and of modern construction.

The harbour is entirely dry at low water, and was originally part of a small arm of the sea, which severed the northern portion of the island from the main land. It is only sixty years since this strait was permanently embanked at each end, and the intervening land reclaimed. The space forming the harbour is about 2000 feet in length by 500 feet wide, and encloses twentytwo acres of water, at high spring tides. A breakwater now extends 650 feet in a southerly direction from the north shore, and terminates 120 feet from the south pier-head; and this work, recently completed, has greatly improved and sheltered the harbour.

The wide shingle bay, having at intervals large spits of sand, that extends between St. Sampson's and St. Peter's Port, has already been mentioned as presenting few features of interest. About half way between, however, there is a curious ivycovered fragment of antiquity, called the ' Chateau des Marais,' better known as the Ivy Castle. It is surrounded by a fosse and by an outer wall, enclosing a
space of about four acres.

To form an idea of Guernsey, it must be visited in two ways; for the interior gives but little idea of the coast, and the fine scenery of the coast seldom opens at all into the island. As a whole, there are few parts of the Atlantic coast of Europe where the cliffs communicate so little, by picturesque open valleys, with the interior of the country; but this arises chiefly from the fact, that the rock is everywhere granite, sloping with some degree of regularity in one direction. The natural fractures, produced by the elevation of the mass, have been already deeply penetrated by the sea, and have produced a multitude of detached islands and rocks, so that what remains consist of hard, rocky masses of table land, often high, but nowhere hilly.

It will be advisable to describe, first, the coast scenery, and afterwards, that of the interior; and, as the most convenient order, we may, with advantage, commence in the vicinity of the town, and notice the chief points of interest as we follow the line of cliff immediately to the south.

From the harbour, the sea wall continues for a short distance to a part of the coast called Les Terres, at which point the cliffs are precipitous, and a strip of public walks and gardens between them and the sea is now in course of arrangement. The ground thus utilised was laid bare during the construction of the harbour; and the mode in which an operation, which might have been unsightly, has been rendered decorative, is worthy of every praise. Two or three small bays beyond, included within the enceinte of the fort, and not accessible to the public, terminate at a small projecting headland, marked with a very unsightly white turret, serving as a sea mark.

Fermain Bay, at the foot of the cliff at this point, is a pretty sandy cove, behind which is one of the few narrow glens opening into the interior. A road runs up to the right from the sands of Fermain Bay to the St. Martin's road, passing two cottage residences placed on the steep slope of the gorge; and a blind path, choked with furze and brambles, may be found to the left, and followed between thick hedges up another branch of the glen, also to the St. Martin's road.

Perched on a tongue of high land between these, is the park-like and well-wooded little estate of Bon Air, built by a former bailiff of the island. There is a private way through the gorse-covered sides and ferny bottom of the glen, from the house to the sea; and the annexed wood cut will give some notion of the exquisite beauty of the broken ground, and the mixture of cultivation and wildness in this part of the island.

From the narrow path just alluded to, a branch will be found close to the edge of the cliff, and an extremely picturesque path conducts to a small fisherman's landing-place, called the Bee du Nez, near which are two open, rocky caverns. Still further on, the same path enters a grassy and ferny hollow, below the Doyle column at Jerbourg. It is quite possible to reach this point at all seasons, at the risk of tearing clothes with brambles and wetting feet in the damp, boggy earth.

From the hollow, which is always rather wet, the shore may easily be reached, and it is well worthy of the effort. To the left there is a cavern, superior to any in Guernsey, except the Creux Mahie, and remarkable for its noble and simple proportions, and magnificent entry through and amongst huge, broken rocks. Turning to the left, as you enter, several fine fragments of rock and grand arched rocks conduct to an imperfect representation of a cavern and funnel well known in Sark, and called there, the Pot. The chimney, or opening above, is here much less lofty than in Sark, and the top is concealed by a thick growth of brambles. In this respect it agrees better with the Creux at Herm.

In all these cases the hole has been originally produced in a soft vein, by rain water. The vein is a very dark green decomposing rock, and contrasts finely with the pink granite. It is continued across to a corresponding bay on the other side of Jerbourg promontory, called 'Petit Port.' Besides this vein, there is one of quartz, and several very interesting minerals are found near. The chief source of interest is, however, derived from the noble forms of broken rock, and the thick vegetation that comes down almost to the water's edge. Considering its wild beauty, it is singular that this little bay, so near the town, is not more frequently visited and better known.

Mounting the cliff at this point, we reach Jerbourg Point, where a column has been erected in honour of Sir John Doyle, a former governor, to whom the island was indebted for its roads, and for numerous improvements.

The views from hence, and also from the rocks about a quarter of a mile beyond, are very fine. The promontory on which the column is placed, forms the south-eastern extremity of Guernsey. It is the nearest point in the island to Jersey, being somewhat less than eighteen miles north-east of Cape Grosnez, in that island. The height of the cliff at the base of the column is about 300 feet. Beyond the foot of the cliff there are several detached rocks, rising out of deep water. The depth of water almost immediately outside Jerbourg Point, and close to these rocks, is at least twenty fathoms.